Geology and Mineral Resources of Khammam District,Telangana
GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF KHAMMAM DISTRICT
Khammam District derived its name from the head quarters town, which is 200 Km east of Hyderabad. The District lies between Lat. 16 Dag. 45 Min. and 18 Deg. 35 min and Long 79 Deg. 47 Min. and 80 Deg. 47 Min. It is bounded on the north by Madhya Pradesh and Orissa States, on the south by Krishna District, on the east by East Godavari and West Godavari District and on the West by Nalgonda and Warangal Districts. The District extends over an area of 16.029 Sq.Km. comprising of 46 Mandals.
There are minor isolated hills traversing through north, Central and Southern parts of the District. The eastern end of the District is occupied by a group of hills stretching upto Papikondalu in the South . Some of the prominent hills in the District are located near by Yellandu R.F., Usirikayalapalli, Cheemalapadu R.F., Yerragutta, Wali-Sugreva hills are some of the important hills in the District.
The most important river flowing through the District is the Godavari. The River flows in the West to Eastern direction in the District. The mighty seasonal river is joined by the Sabari, the other river Kinnerasani. The other rivers like Munner, Pealer, Akher and Wyra join Krishna river. River Godavari has the deepest gorge in the Papikonda Hill. This river is navigable from Badrachalam Temple town upto Rajahmundry in East Godavari District.
GEOLOGY OF THE DISTRICT
The District forms a part of the Indian Peninsular shield, which has remained stable since the formation of the crust. They are exposed in the Western and Eastern part of the District. During the Archean Era, parts of the District was occupied by two vast geo-synclines which got deposition of sediments in them. Later, they were subjected to diastrophic movements resulting in folding, faulting and uplifting and subjected to metamorphism. These gave rise to Khondalite and dharwarian suit of rocks. These suit of rocks have occupied in the extreme Eastern, South and central parts of the District. The South and Eastern parts of the District are covered by narrow bands of charnokites. During the late Archaean Era, igneous intrusions of alkaline rocks in Ashwaraopet-Kunavaram belt, basic to ultrabasic rocks and a number of swarm of basic dykes around Khammam, Pegmaties and quartz veins are formed in many parts of the District. At the end of the Archaean Era, there was an invasion of sea covering parts of Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad and Maharashtra and where argillaceous, calcareous and arenaceious sediments were deposited which were later subjected to folding, faulting and partly metamorphosed during subsequent periods. In the District, These deposits have been refered Pakhals, Albakas and Sultavais and they have occupied the northern and North-Western parts of the District.
After the Proterozoic sedimentation, there was a lull the depositional history of the District for about 300 m.y.i.e., from Cambrian to Permian. By this time a supercontinent Pangea comprising of 5 continents including India was in existence and referred geologically as Gondwana land. The Gondawana period began with the deposition of glacial beds followed by feldspathic sandstones, clays and ferrugeneuous sand stones. There was a luxuriant vegetation during this period which got drifted and deposited by river waters in lakes and inland seas. On burial, these were transformed into coal in course of time. During the late Mesoziac era, there was break up of Gondwana land as a result of which the Pranhit-Godavari basin was uplifted which gave rise to river alluvium on the banks of the Godavari and soil cappings.
The Archaean rocks comprises of peninsular gneissic complex, Khondalite suit of rocks, charnokites, anorthosites, hornblende/biotite chlorite quartz schists, acidic, alkaline, basic intrusives and veins of quartz and pegmatites.
The Peninsular gneisses consists of hornblende gneisses and biotite gneisses having the foliation tending NNW-SEE with steep dips towards east. They are medium grained, grey in colour and intruded by basic ultra basic and alkaline syenites rocks such as dolerites pyroxehites, gabbros, anorthosites and pegmatites and quartz veins.
The Khondalite suit of rocks represent the earliest sedimentary rocks deposited in a major geosyncline of early Archaean era. They were metamorphosed under (the granulitic facies) high temperature and pressure conditions. They are represented by garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneisses, felspathic gneisses, graphits schists, calc – granulites and quartzites in the district. These rocks are found in Chandrugonda , Julurpad, Kukunur, Chintur, V.R.Puram, Velair & Ashwaraopet Mandals.
The Charnockites and Pyroxene granulites occur mostly as bands in the Khondalite suit of rocks and are characterizes by the presence of minerals such as diopside, hypersthene etc., The Charnockites range in composition from acidic to basic and ultrabasic. These rocks occur in Chandrugonda, Julurpad, Enkur, Chintur, V.R.Puram, velain, Ashwaraopet and Madhira Mandals.
The Dharwars comprises of banded magnetite quartzite, ferruginous quartzites, quartz – chlorite schists, mica schists, amphibolites and calc-schists. These rocks are exposed partly in Yerrupalem, Madhira, Kallur, Talada, Mangur, Aswapuram, Burgampahad, Konjerla, Tekulapalli & Paloncha.
The alkaline rocks like nepheline-corundum syentite and zircon-syenite are intrusives into the Khondalites in a 32 Km long narrow beld in Kunavaram-Vinayakapuram area.
Pegmatites, quartz veins, and swarms of dolerites have cut through Archaean suit of rocks.
PAKHAL SUPER GROUP:
The Pakhal Super group comprises of Mallampalli, Mulug and Albaka Group in the order of super position. These rocks rest non-conformably over the Archaean basement. They consists of variable proportions of calcareous argillaceous, and arenaceous sediments. The lower part of the Super Group is Mallampalli Group is dominated by dolomite. The middle part by Mulug Group, consists of Somandewara quartzite and Tippapuram shale. The Albaka Group is restricted to the Eastern part of the District and is represented by homogenous sequence of sandstone and limestone. The Pakhal have a regional strike of NW-SE to the N-S direction, and are exposed in Bonakal, chintakani, Khammam (U), Kamepali, Garla, Bayyaram, Gundala, Singareni, Yellandu, Tekulapalli and Palvoncha Mandals.
Sullavai Group of rocks overline the Pakhais unconformably, and they are represented by sandstone with a minor proportions of Conglomerate. These include Nami breacia, Doli sandstone and Usher sandstone.
GONDWANA SUPER GROUP:
The Gondwana rocks in the District forms a part of Pranhita Godavari basin of fossiliferous fluviatile sediments of Dermain to Jusassic age. The Gondwana Super Group sediments occurring in the District are divisible into the lower Gondwana Group and the upper Gondwana Group. The lower Gondwana Group comprises of Talchirs, Barkars Barren measure and Kamthi formations where as the upper Gondwana Group is represented by Kota formation. The Talchirs consist of glacioal boulder beds, sandstones and shales. The boulder bed is of glacial origin and consists of boulders, cobbles and pebbles of Archaeans and Pakhals embedded in argillaceous matrix. The sandstones are brown in colour, medium to coarse grained and felspathic. The shales are pale green in colour and are moderately compact. These outcrops are exposed near Cherla-Ammagaripalli, south of Morampalle near Bhurgampahad, Gouridevipeta, NW of Yellandu, NW of Kallur NE of Manbotgudem (17 deg. 51 Min. 45 Sec. : 80 Deg. 43 Min. 20 Sec), NE of Chinthakunta (17 Deg. 46 Min. 40 sec : 80 deg. 34 Min. 20 Sec.) East of Marrigundem (17 Deg. 45 Min. 45 Sec. : 80 Deg. 31 Min.) & South of Munarkalpad (17 Deg. 44 Min. 15 Sec. 80 Deg. 40 Min. 15 Sec.) South of Punkulchilks (17 Deg. 43 Min. 30 Sec : 80 Deg. 34 Min. 20 Sec.) West of Gottumalla (17 Deg. 38 Min. 45 Sec. : 80 Deg. 37 Min. 45 Sec.)
The Barakar formations overlie the Talchirs conformably. The formations contain rich workable coal seams. The formation consists of coarse to very coarse grained sandstone, carbonaceous shale and coal seams. These rocks are exposed partly over Cherla, Gundala, Mangur, Ashwapuram, Kothagudem & Yellandu Mandals.
The Barren measures conformably overlies the Barakar formation. The formation comprises of ferruginous sandstone, felspathic sandstone, iron-stone, siltstone & variegated clays. These rocks are exposed around Pagidevi (17 deg. 58 Min. 30 Sec.: 80 deg. 44 Min. ) Chintakanta (17 Deg. 46 Min. 40 Sec. : 80 Deg 34 Min. 20 Sec. ), South East of Venkatapuram ( 17 Deg. 50 Min. 45 Sec. : 80 Deg. 33 Min. 45 Sec.), Tokaabanrola (17 Deg. 46 Min. 20 Sec.: 80 Deg. 34 Min.), Punukula Chilka ( 17 Deg. 43 In. 30 Sec. : 80 Deg. 34 Min. 20 Sec. )
MINERAL RESOURCES OF KHAMMAM DISTRICT
Khammam District is endowed with a variety of important minerals such as Coal, Iron Ore, Dolomite, Limestone, Quartz, Barytes, Copper, Garnet, Steatile, chromite, corundum, Red Oxide, Kyanite, Copper, Graphite etc., There are 59 Mining Leases covering an extent of 1.01 Lakh acres. It is one of the four coal producing Districts in the State presently.
Coal occurs in association with sandstone and Shales of Barakar member of Damoder formation of L.Godwanas. It is found in Yellandu, Singareni, Kothagudem & Manuguru Mandals. The reserves estimated upto 330 mts is 807 million tones. Coal Mines are located in Yellandu, Kothagudem and Manuguru divisions. M/s.Singareni Collieries Company Limited is holding 3 mining leases covering as extent of 706.407 Sq. Km. Working for coal was first commenced in the year 1892. The District contributes 30 % of coal production in the state. These mines are being worked by both open cast and underground mining methods. Mojor quantity of coal is being used by railways, thermal power stations, cement factories etc.,
Iron Ore (Hematite) mines are located in Bayyaram Village and Mandal and Appalanaraimhapuram, Vallabhi, of Nelakondapalli and Mudigonda Mandals. These are 8 iron ore mining leases existing in the District covering an extent of 1762 acres.
The mining is one by open cast method. The District contributes 5% of the total production of iron ore to the State. The ore is used in the sponge iron plant located at Paloncha.
The iron ore occurring at Appalanarasimhapuram & Vallabhi is float ore whereas the ore at Bayyaram occurs in association with Proterozoic sediments in the Pakhal basin.
Dolomite occurs in Madharam, Seripuram, Pocharam, Karepalli Villages of Mukundapuram, Garla Bayyaram Mandalams. M/s.Steel Authority of India is holding a mining lease over an extent of 950 Acres. The method of mining is open cast. The dolomite is been used in the blast furnace in the manufacture of steel at Visakhapatnam steel plant.
Barytes occurs in Siripuram, Pocharam of Garla mandal and Velugumatla, Bellapally of Khammam Mandal. There are 4 mining leases covering an extent of 846 acres existing in the District. The District contributes 6% of Barytes production to the State. The method of mining is selective and open cast.
Dissiminations of chalcopyrite occurs in Mailaram Village, M/s.A.P.M.D.C is holding a mining lease over an extent of 107.61 acres. The method of mining is underground.
In addition the other important minerals occurring in the District are Garnet at Ramavaram, Chenchupally, Laxmidevipally, Sujatnagar in Kothagudem Mandal. It is occurring in association with Garnet kyamit schist. It occurs as insitu or float ore. There are mining leases covering an extent of 485 acres in the District.
Dolerite (black granite), Grey Granites and Syenites occur at number of places. Black Granites deposits occur in Khammam, Tirumalayapalem, Nelakondapalli and Kusumanchi Mandals. The Syenites are exposed in Kunavaram & Aswaraopet Mandals. The Grey Granites occurs in Khammam, Kusumanchi, Madhira, Talada, Wyra & Kallur Mandals. There are 107 Black Granite Quarry Leases existing in the District covering an extent of 481 acres. There is one black granite cutting and polishing unit in the District. Bulk of the production is exported outside the state. They are useful as tomb stones, monuments, slabs & tiles.
Chromite occurs in association with ultra basic rocks in Sriramgiri, Tutakalingampeta, Jannaram in Enkur Mandal and Dendukur in Madhira Mandal. The deposit at Sriramgiri is float ore. M/s.FACOR is hoilding a mining lease for Chromite over an extent of 92 acres in Tutakalingampet Village of Enkur Mandal.
Ruby variety corundum occurs in association with tale-chlorite schists and amphjibolites in Dharwarian rocks at Gubbagurty, Laxmipuram, Lalapuram & Saingaraipalem villages of Khammam Mandal and Vinayakapuram, Peddavayu and Rangapur of Aswarapoet Mandal. In Aswarapoet blue corundum (Saphire) crystals occur as embedded in Syenite rocks. There are 12 mining leases granted for garnet/corrundum, covering an extent of 1013 acres.
Graphite occurs in the form of veins, dissiminations and small pockets in association with Khondalite suit of rocks in jeediguppa, Kaltanur, Rockonda, Darepally of Vera Ramachandrapuram mandal and Khakishnoor. Siddaram and Kavaraigundla of Velair Mandal. There are 4 mining lease existing for the mineral covering an extent of 238 Acres. The fixed carbon is low (10-18%) hence needs benifications.
Marbles suitable for internal decoration, table tops, flooring purposes are occurring in associations with Proterozoic sediments. They occurs in Jastupalli, Monditog, Bethampudi, Tekulapalli of Yekuklapalli of Yellandu Mandal. There are 23 quarry lease existing in the district. This is the only district in the state which is producing marbles.
Khammam District is one of the important district in the context of occurrences of black granite. A number dyke swarms (black granite) traverse the Archean Peninsular gneissic complex around Khammam town, they run at places for over a length of 3 or 4 kilometers with a width of 100 to 150 metres
The major deposits of black granite in the district are found within a radius of about 20 KM around Khammam town. The dykes are dolerites with coloured ranging from medium grey to jet black. The rocks are medium to coarse grained. Good quality black granites, some with greenish black colour are seen in and around Edulapuram, Polapalli and Arempula villages and are extensively quarried. So also are the prospects near Khanapur and Pandreguppalli Villages in Mudigonda Mandal. Black granites of Nelakondapalli exhibit greenish tinges due to predominance of augitic in the rock.
However, many occurrences in Khammam district are highly jointed and thus cannot yield big blocks; also some of them have benefits such as the blotches and flowers of plagioclase feldspar traversed by and thin veins of epidote, thus rendering the rock commercially less attractive.
MINERAL RESOURCES OF KHAMMAM DISTRICT
|Location||Accessibility||Geological setting||Grade||Reserves (Mil.T)||Use|
|Yellandu Singareni Usirikayalapalli||Yellandu is 50 Km. noth of Khammam and is connected by a tar road. It is also connected by a railway track from Dornakal||Coal occurs in association with sandstones and shales of Barakar and Kamthi formations of Lower Gondwana Group||“C”||31 in Yellandu upto 330 Mts.||Thermal Power Plants. Railways, cement, Iron Ore & Steel Plants, Fertilisers etc.,|
|Kothagudem (Mandal) Ramavaram||Kothagudem is 80 Km. east of Khammam and is connected by motorable road. It is also linked by a railway track from Dornakal.||“C”||510 in Kothagudem upto 330 mts.|
|Manuguru (M) Singavaram||Manuguru is 155 Km. from Khammam and is connected by good motorable road. It is also connected by Railway track from Kothagudem||“C”||255 in Manuguru & Cherla upto 300 mts.|
|Cherla||Cherla is 60 Km. north of Bhadrachalam and is connected by good jeepable road||“C”|
|Bayyaram (M) Irsalepuram Motlathimmapur Neelancha Ramachandrapuram Yellandu (M)||Yellandu is 50 Km. noth of Khammam and is connected by a motorable road. Bayyaram is located 20 Kms. on Mahboobad road.||Linear disconnected bodies of haematite occur associated with Bayyaram gritty quartzite in the Pakhal basin||58 to 60% Feo||11||Sponge Iron Plant at Paloncha|
|Usirikayalapalli||Irsalapuram, Motlathimmapur and Ramachandrapuram are located 15 Km. west of Sudimella 50 Km. south of Khammam and is connected by motorable road.|
|Appalanarasimhapuram Vallabhi (M)||Haematite as float ore||occurs 58 to 60% Feo||Sponge Iron Plant at Paloncha|
|Yellandu (M) Usirikayalapalli Bethampudi Rallapadu Bhadrachalam (M)||Villages are located 10 Km east of Yellandu and connected by motorable roads||Occurs as veins and reefs||99 to 99.6% Sio2||NE||Nava Bharath Ferro Alloys at Paloncha|
|Gangolu Kivvaka Uppasaka Santhanapalli (M) R.F. Tallapenta Cheruvupuram Kotturu Wantigudem Danyalpadu Kasanpalle||Gangolu is 30 Km. from Bhadrachalam on Parnasala road villges are located 6 Km. NE of Kalluru which is located on Khammam Sathupalli road|
|Sudimalla Yanambailu Karasutts||Located 25 Ks. West of Yellandu and falls in reserve forest. Located 10 Km. SE of Mailaram|
|Sudimalla Pocharam Seripuram||Villages are located 20 Km. SW of Yellandu. These are approachable from Yellandu on jeepable road||Barytes associated with Chert and quartzites occurs as fualt fillings in Pakhals||White and snow White||0.2||Being used in the Barium Chemical Plant at Kothagudem|
|Khammam (M) Velugumatla Venkataipalem Ballapet Komur cheruvupuram Gopalpur||Villages are situated 6 Km. east of Khammam and are connected by good motorable roads.||Barytes occurs in the form of lenses, stringers & veins in the Pakhals||White and snow White||0.56|
|Enukuru (M) Thutakalingampeta Jannaram Gowraram srirangini Linganapeta||Villages are located 20 Ks. SW of Kothagudem. These are accessable from Kothagudem on Khammam road and from Erukur a diversion towards west leads to these village||Chromite occurs as float ore within ultrabasic intrusive rocks||20 to 40% Cr||NE||Used in Ferro Alloys in Garividi in Vizianagaram District|
|Madhira (M) Dendukur||4 Km. SE of Madhira||Chromite occurs as float ore within ultrabasic intrusive rocks||N.E|
|Kothagudem (M) Gareebpet Ramavaram Mootankal|
|Posugudem Laxmidevipalli Singlibhuypalem Sujatnagar||Villages are located within a radius ab 10 Km. from Kothagudem and are approachable by jeepable roads||Crystals of transparent to translucent Almandine variety of Garnet Kyanite Quartz Schist rocks. It occurs as insitu and as well as float ore||Semi-precious abbrassive||It is used as abrassive and semi-precious stone|
|Yellandu (M) Jastupalli Monditog Nizampet Bethampudi Bodu Tekullapalli||Villages are located 12-50 Kms. East, NE and SE of Yellandu and approachable by jeepable roads||Marbles of Pakhal group belt extends from Monditog in the northy to the Jastupalli in the south over a stgrike length of 20 Km. Tremolite or Actinolite crystals / needles present in the marblke||Not known||Used as filler in the pesticide Industry at Khammam and Guntur|
|Yellandu (M) Jastupalli Monditog Nizampet Bthampudi Bodu Tekullapalli||Villages are located 15-20, east, NE and SE OF Yellandu and approachable by jepable roads||Marbles of Pakhal group belt extends from Monditog in the north to the Jastupalli in the south over a strike length of 20 Km. Tremolite or Actinolite crystals / needles present in the marble||Not estimated||Useful as flooring tiles after cutting.|
|Khammam (M) Gubbagurty Laxmipuram Mallapalli Lalapuram singaraipal em Makalunta Kalrathimatta Thummalepal li Gundrathim aduges Nacharam Vinayakapur am||Villages are located 15-20, east, ENE of Khammam and are approachable by jeepable roads from khammam||Corundum occurs in association with Talc, Chlorite, Schist, and Amphilbolites in the Archaean terrain||Semi precious abbrassive||Not estimated||Useful as Semi-Precious stone and as abrassive|
|Peddavagu rangapur rangapur||10 Km from Thallade towards Kothagudem road and 30 Km. from Ashwaraopet||Corundum occur in Nepheline syenites|
|Thummalepal li Gunndrathim aduges Nacharam Vinayakapur am Peddavagu Rangapur|
|Mylaram||About 20 Kms from Kothagudem||Chalcoptrite Average occurs as dissiminations, stringers, and veinlets in association with quartz vein with an echelon zones of shearing and brecciation in the Dharwarian schists, Pakkhal, Quartzites and Phyilites||Average copper content % 180 to 1.35||Possible reserves 0.519 & 0.814 Total anticipated reserves 0.991 to 1.512||For extraction Copper|
|Madharam Seripuram Pocharam Karepalle||Villages are located 12 Km. SE of Yellandu and accessable by good motorable roads.||Dolomite occurs in Pakhal Group of rock||SM S & BF||60 million tonnes||Used as flux in Spong iron steel, & Ferro-Alloys and extr- action of Magnesium|
|Bhumulalanka Suddipaka||Bhumulalanka is about 4 km. east of Cheria. Suddipaka is 12 Km. NW of Venkatapuram||Limestone occurs in Pakhal Group of Cao rocks.||40 to 47% Cao||N.E||Bhadrachalam paper board.|
|DIMENSIO NAL STONE|
|Venkatayapa lem Edulapuram Mallernaduges Kokisani Nelakondapalle Arekondu Asempula Asempula Gunalapadu Regulachelks Teldarupalle Thettellapadu||These villages are located 20 km. WSW and south of Khammam and are approachable by jeepable roads.||Dolomite occurs in the form of dykes, intruded into the Archaean country rock.||-NE-||-NE-||Used as Tiles and Panels after cutting & Polishing.|
|Sathupalli Gattumalli Akkendapalli||These villages are located at 20 kms. Sathupalli on Aswaraopet road.||-NE-||-NE-||Useful in paints|
|Jeediguppa Kaltanur Rachakonda Darepalli||These Villages are located in Vara Ramachandapuram Mandal, located towards north of the river Godavari, at a distance of 10-15 Km. from Kunavaram. Approachable by ferry from Kunavaram||Graphite dissiminations occurs in small pockers and veins in association with Khondlite suit of rocks||0.12||used in the manufacture of Crucibles, Paints, Pencil leads, Explosives, Electronics Dry batteries etc.|
|Kaishnoor Siddaram Kavarigundle||These are located towards south of the river Godavari. These can be approachable from Aswaraopet by Jeepable road.||-do-|
|LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN KHAMMAM DISTRICT|