Telangana region has been ruled by many great dynasties like Sathavahanas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, asafjahis. Of which the Kakathiyas impressions on architecture are found more in these days too.
Torana built by the Kakatiyas in Warangal in 1163 Ramappa Temple, built in 1213 by ruler Recherla Rudra of Kakatiyas The area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE.
Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Telugu Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed.
Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.
Qutbshahis and nizams
The area came under the Muslim rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.
Charminar in Hyderabad
In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning “Administrator of the Realm”). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions were ruled by the nizams.
When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the nizams. Nizam [who?] signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state’s defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. Nizam [who?] in two instances ceded the Coastal and Rayalaseema districts of his dominion to British due to his inability to pay for the help that British rendered in his wars against Vijayanagar and Tipu Sultan armies. The ceded Coastal and Rayalaseema districts were called Sarkar and Ceded areas and were part of the British Madras Presidency until India’s independence and part of Madras state until 1953.
Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the nizams of Hyderabad.
When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The central government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.
He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State, who were part of British India and familiar with Indian system unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used completely different administrative system from British India and used Urdu as the state language.
In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.
Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the ‘fast unto death’ protest by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.
The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).
The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the king of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.
States Reorganization Commission
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on linguistic bases. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana’s interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Following the Gentlemen’s agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.
There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement gained momentum over decades for a new state of Telangana. On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Violent protests led by politicians raised in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.
Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state.After various stages the bill was placed in the parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president and published in the gazette on 1 March 2014.
The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. The occasion was marked by pink balloons and an hour long firework display starting at midnight. Cultural displays highlighting the language and traditions of the state’s people were held.
The newly chosen state song “Jaya Jaya he Telangana” was played at more than 150 celebrations across the state. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was chosen as the first chief minister of Telangana. He and his cabinet were sworn in at 8:15 am local time. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.